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Spontaneous pneumothorax

Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is associated with smoking but defined as occurring in the absence of known lung diseaseSecondary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs in the presence of known lung disease and is associated with increased symptoms, morbidity, and van cleef and arpels perlee ring price knock off rates of tension pneumothoraxImmediate recognition and management of tension pneumothorax is required to prevent deathSmoking increases the risk of pneumothorax and rates of recurrence, and smoking cessation van cleef arpels between finger ring knock off is strongly advisedSurgical intervention is warranted for patients with recurrent pneumothorax as the risk of further recurrence is highPneumothorax describes the presence of gas within the pleural space, between the lung and the chest wall. It remains a globally important health problem, with considerable associated morbidity and healthcare costs. Without prompt management pneumothorax can, occasionally, be fatal. Current research may in the future lead to more patients receiving ambulatory outpatient management. This review explores the epidemiology and causes of pneumothorax and discusses diagnosis, evidence based management strategies, and possible future developments.Sources and selection criteriaWe searched the Cochrane database of systematic reviews for articles related to pneumothorax. We searched Medline using the search term "pneumothora" appearing in relevant study types (clinical trials, literature reviews, and meta analyses) as well as in recent conference proceedings. We van cleef arpels engagement ring knock off limited studies to those in adults. We focused on randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta analyses, and where possible used recent studies.

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